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Vegan Resources: Health, Nutrition & Disease


Behold! One of the most comprehensive & extensive databases of scholarly articles regarding nutrition & the pressing need for a plant based diet you will ever find.

Most of these articles highlight the health risks associated with the Standard American Diet (S.A.D) of high meat & dairy consumption, but some of them focus more generally on improved dietic practices & the health benefits of plant based eating. It’s important that you don’t look at the quantity of articles, but look at the actual data – look at the evidence. Acknowledge the shortcomings, but notice that many of the gaps left in one study are filled or picked up by a subsequent study.

Please note that I am not a doctor. I’m also not a scientist (except for that time I had a Doctor Dreadful set – I was definitely a Mad Scientist then). I’m just passionate about veganism & it’s health benefits (& environmental benefits – & it goes without saying, the animal lives it saves is my driving force behind all of this). I'm not here to peddle pseudoscientific claims – where there are omissions, the studies acknowledge them – nothing here is to be taken as absolute fact, but instead as a piece to a much larger puzzle. Each study is another piece, & when you put each piece together, the larger picture becomes clearer.

I’m also not here to demonize meat & dairy – I’ll let these scientists & doctors & researchers do that for me. Ha-ha! But seriously.

I’ve categorized the articles into headings like Cancer, Diabetes, Kidney Disease, etc., based on the type of research you will find under that heading. Ideally this will make it easier to navigate. Under each heading I have alphabetized the research by the first author’s last name. For the sake of my sanity, I have left out many subsequent author’s names & replaced them with ‘et. al’, as is common practice in the academic community. If you are interested in seeing the rest of the author’s names, you can click on the handy-dandy link I’ve provided.

Each entry will have a name, a publishing date, a title, a link, & usually a short summary of the issues addressed in the study and/or the results/findings of the study. Some entries are in books, & I have provided the information you will need to track those books down if you so choose.

I’ve worked long & hard, ceaselessly, tirelessly. Every spare moment I’ve had, I found myself stealing away to read more articles, do more searches, delve deeper into the world of nutrition & biology. After all, it’s important to understand how our body works, and how what we put into it affects it.

By no means is this a complete list. There are many other studies out there, some I’ve come across and lost, others underneath stones yet to be turned over. I plan to add to this list as I come across new information and new studies. And please, if you have a scholarly article you would like to see added to this body of research; if you notice an error or repeated entry (please note that some entries are duplicated under different headings on purpose) that I may have overlooked during my zombie sessions late at night; or if you have any questions or concerns, please don’t hesitate to contact me. You can message me via Instagram @veganacnesufferers or you can email me personally at veganacnesufferers@gmail.com, or via the "Contact" page.

Remember folks …

Correlation /= causation, but where there’s THIS much smoke .. there has to be fire.

Acne

Adebamowo, et. al, 2005. High school dietary dairy intake and teenage acne.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15692464/

This study found a positive association with acne for intake of total milk and skim milk. They hypothesize that the association with milk may be because of the presence of hormones and bioactive molecules in milk.

Adebamowo, et. al, 2006. Milk consumption and acne in adolescent girls.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17083856/

This study found a positive association between intake of milk and acne. This finding supports earlier studies and suggests that the metabolic effects of milk are sufficient to elicit biological responses in consumers.

Adebamowo, et. al, 2008. Milk consumption and acne in teenaged boys.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18194824/

This study found a positive association between intake of skim milk and acne. This finding suggests that skim milk contains hormonal constituents, or factors that influence endogenous hormones, in sufficient quantities to have biological effects in consumers.

Danby, 2008. Diet and acne.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18280909/

Danny, 2009. Acne, dairy and cancer: The 5alpha-P link.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20046583/

Dairy consumption is associated with breast & prostate cancer, & acne.

Di Landro, et. al, 2012. Family history, body mass index, selected dietary factors, menstrual history, and risk of moderate to severe acne in adolescents and young adults.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22386050/

This study used adolescents and young adults, and found 78% higher risk of acne in those drinking more than 3 servings per week of milk.

Melnik, 2009.

Milk consumption: aggravating factor of acne and promoter of chronic diseases of Western societies. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19243483/

Melnik, 2011. Evidence for acne-promoting effects of milk and other insulinotropic dairy products.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21335995/

Both, restriction of milk consumption or generation of less insulinotropic milk will have an enormous impact on the prevention of epidemic western diseases like obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and acne.

Antibiotic Resistance

Goldman, 2004. Antibiotic abuse in animal agriculture: Exacerbating drug resistance in human pathogens.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10807030490281016

Recognizes that the casual use of antibiotics in the agricultural industry is a global issue threatening humans.

Siriken et. al, 2015. Prevalence and Characterization of Salmonella Isolated from Chicken Meat in Turkey.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25817042/?i=17&from=chicken%20meat

Salmonella & antibiotic resistance in chicken.

Van Boeckel, et. al, 2015. Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25792457/?i=22&from=chicken%20meat

Antimicrobial increase in chicken.

Torralbo, et. al, 2015. Higher resistance of Campylobacter coli compared to Campylobacter jejuni at chicken slaughterhouse.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25770597/?i=33&from=chicken%20meat

Antibiotic resistance & prominence of campylobacter in chicken.

Witte, 1998. Medical Consequences of Antibiotic Use in Agriculture

http://m.sciencemag.org/content/279/5353/996.short

B12

McDougall, 2007.

https://www.drmcdougall.com/misc/2007nl/nov/b12.htm

Shaw.

http://libaware.economads.com/b12issue.php

Tucker, et. al, 2000. Plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations relate to cintake source in the Framingham Offspring Study

http://m.ajcn.nutrition.org/content/71/2/514.long

39% of Americans are B12 deficient. If vegans are only 1% of the population, how could B12 be a vegan issue?

Campylobacter

Guyard-Nicodeme, et. al, 2015. Prevalence and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken meat sold in French retail outlets.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25770428/?i=34&from=chicken%20meat

Campylobacter at the consumer level found in chicken in France.

Hansson, et. al, 2015. Associations between Campylobacter levels on chicken skin, underlying muscle, caecum and packaged fillets.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25791006/?i=24&from=chicken%20meat

Campylobacter found in chicken skin/breast/muscle.

Cancer

Allen, et. al, 2000. Hormones and diet: low insulin-like growth factor-1 but normal bioavailable androgens in vegan men.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2374537/pdf/83-6691152a.pdf

Cancer IGF1 in vegans, vegetarians & meat eaters.

Allen, et. al, 2002. The Associations of Diet with Serum Insulin-like Growth Factor I and Its Main Binding Proteins in 292 Women Meat-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans

http://m.cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/11/11/1441.long

Cancer IGF1 in ️vegans, vegetarians & meat eaters. Vegans have lower levels of IGF1 & higher levels of IGF1 inhibitors (although their relationship is not entirely understood).

Aune, et. al, 2009. Egg consumption and the risk of cancer: a multisite case-control study in Uruguay.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20104980/

Egg consumption associated with an increased risk in all cancers. Suggests further research to corroborate.

Barnard, et. al, 1995. The Medical Costs Attributable to Meat Consumption.

http://www.birdflubook.org/resources/Barnard_1995_PM_24_646.pdf

Meat associated with increased cancer risk – these figures are also underestimated.

Barnard, et. al, 2006. Effects of a low-fat, high-fiber diet and exercise program on breast cancer risk factors in vivo and tumor cell growth and apoptosis in vitro.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16965238/

These results show that a very-low-fat, high-fiber diet combined with daily exercise results in major reductions in risk factors for BCa while subjects remained overweight/obese. Not explicitly vegan but high fat diets are typically associated with meat, & high fiber diets are associated with vegetables & fruit.

Beasley, et. al, 2011. Post-diagnosis dietary factors and survival after invasive breast cancer.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21197569/

Lowered intakes of saturated and trans fats are associated with improved survival rate after breast cancer diagnosis.

(http://appliedresearch.cancer.gov/diet/foodsources/sat_fat/sf.html Sources of high saturated fat: dairy, eggs, meat, pasta, candy).

Chan, et. al, 1998. Dairy products, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, and risk of prostate cancer (Sweden).

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1008823601897

High consumption of dairy was associated with a 50% increase in cancer risk.

Chan, et. al, 2001. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians’ Health Study.

http://m.ajcn.nutrition.org/content/74/4/549.short

Increased risk of prostate cancer with consumption of dairy.

Chan, et. al, 2011. Red and processed meat and colorectal cancer incidence: meta-analysis of prospective studies.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21674008/

Meat associated with increase in colorectal, colon & rectal cancers.

Cho, et. al, 2003. Premenopausal Fat Intake and Risk of Breast Cancer.

http://m.jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/14/1079.full.pdf

Total fat intake didn’t indicate an increased risk of breast cancer – however ANIMAL fat intake IS positively associated with breast cancer.

Danny, 2009. Acne, dairy and cancer: The 5alpha-P link.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20046583/

Dairy consumption is associated with breast & prostate cancer.

DeBruin, et. al, 2001. Detection of PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) in the milk of healthy women.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11712910/

Association between meat & breast cancer risk.

De Noni, et. al, 2009.

Review of the Potential Health Impact of Beta-Casomorphins and Related Peptides.

http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/231r.pdf

Donaldson, 2004. Nutrition and cancer: a review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15496224/?i=1&from=flax%20seed%20colorectal Breast, colorectal & prostate cancer – an anti-cancer diet means less meat & more fiber.

Ganmaa, et. al, 2001.

Incidence and mortality of testicular and prostatic cancers in relation to world dietary practices

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.10185/abstract

Ganmaa, et. al, 2005. The possible role of female sex hormones in milk from pregnant cows in the development of breast, ovarian and corpus uteri cancers.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16125328/

Milk & dairy products were positively associated with higher risk levels of hormone related cancers (breast, ovarian & corpus uteri).

Gao, LaValley & Tucker, 2005. Prospective Studies of Dairy Product and Calcium Intakes and Prostate Cancer Risk: A meta-analysis.

http://m.jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/97/23/1768.short

Dairy consumption associated with an increased prostate cancer risk.

Gonzalez, et. al, 2006. Meat intake and risk of stomach and esophageal adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16507831/

Total, red, and processed meat intakes were associated with an increased risk of gastric non-cardia cancer, especially in H. pylori antibody-positive subjects, but not with cardia gastric cancer.

Gueraud, et. al, 2015. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and heme iron induce oxidative stress bio markers and a cancer promoting environment in the colon of rats.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25744414/?i=3&from=inflammation%20meat

Rats fed heme iron (meat) had increasingly toxic feces, an indicator for colorectal cancer.

Jiao, et. al, 2015. Dietary consumption of advanced glycation end products and pancreatic cancer in the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25527756/?i=11&from=inflammation%20meat

Confirms a positive association of red meat & pancreatic cancer.

Key, et. al, 2009. Cancer incidence in British vegetarians.

http://www.nature.com/bjc/journal/v101/n1/full/6605098a.html

Associated reduced risk of ALL types of cancer with vegetarianism – “drastically” reduced risk, approximately 48% (specifically leukemia, multiple myeloma, & NH lymphoma).

Knekt, et. al, 1994. Intake of fried meat and risk of cancer: a follow-up study in Finland.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7989114/

Meat consumption & mammary, ovary & endometrial cancers.

Larsson, et. al, 2006. Meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16991129/

Red & processed meat associated with an increase in colorectal cancer.

Larsson, et. al, 2006. Processed meat consumption, dietary nitrosamines and stomach cancer risk in a cohort of Swedish women.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16550597/

Women who ate processed meats were more likely to get stomach cancer.

Lauber, et. al, 2004. The cooked food derived carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine is a potent oestrogen: a mechanistic basis for its tissue-specific carcinogenicity.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15319301/

Meat as a carcinogen & association with breast cancer.

Lauber, 2011. The cooked meat-derived mammary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine promotes invasive behaviour of breast cancer cells.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20951759/

Breast cancer & meat.

Lucenteforte, et. al, 2010. Macronutrients, fatty acids, cholesterol and pancreatic cancer.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19850469/

A diet high in sugars from fruit & low in animal fat improves pancreatic cancer risk.

Mahfouz, et. al, 2014. role of dietary and lifestyle factors in the development of colorectal cancer: case control study in Minia, Egypt. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25622477/?i=19&from=colorectal%20cancer%20diet

Colorectal cancer & it’s risk factors – red meat, processed meat. Improving factors were eating more vegetables, exercise, etc.

Melnik, et. al, 2009. Milk consumption: aggravating factor of acne and promoter of chronic diseases of Western societies.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19243483/

The milk-induced change of the IGF-1-axis most likely contributes to the development of fetal macrosomia, induction of atopy, accelerated linear growth, atherosclerosis, carcinogenesis and neurodegenerative diseases.

Melnik, 2011. Evidence for acne-promoting effects of milk and other insulinotropic dairy products.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21335995/

Both, restriction of milk consumption or generation of less insulinotropic milk will have an enormous impact on the prevention of epidemic western diseases like obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and acne. Funded by NESTLE!

Michaud, et. al, 2006. Meat intake and bladder cancer risk in 2 prospective cohort studies.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17093172/

Increase in bladder cancer risk particularly in those who regularly consume bacon.

Murtaugh, et. al, 2004. Meat Consumption Patterns and Preparation, Genetic Variants of Metabolic Enzymes, and Their Association with Rectal Cancer in Men and Women

http://m.jn.nutrition.org/content/134/4/776.full

Increase in rectal cancer in men associated with increased red meat consumption.

Norat, et. al, 2005. Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15956652/

Red meat & processed meat positively associated with colorectal cancer.

Orlich, et. al, 2015. Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancers. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25751512/?i=4&from=colorectal%20cancer%20diet

Colorectal cancer – ️ a vegan diet v pescatarian diet v semivegetarian etc. Non-vegetarians have a higher risk of colorectal cancer.

Ornish, et. al, 2005. Intensive lifestyle changes may affect the progression of prostate cancer.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16094059/

Prostate cancer & dietary changes. Doesn’t explicitly state veganism, though it does advocate for a ‘healthy’ change.

Otsuki, et. al, 2007. Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, lifestyle-related diseases.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17220612/

Pancreatic cancer & chronic pancreatitis are both associated with animal fat intake – genetics & environmental factors may exacerbate the role nutrition plays.

Parkin, 2011. Cancers attributable to dietary factors in the UK in 2010.

http://www.nature.com/bjc/journal/v105/n2s/abs/bjc2011478a.html

Colon & rectal cancer highest in people who consumed processed meats (ham, bacon, sausages) & red meat.

Qin, et. al, 2004.

Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer: meta-analysis of case-control studies.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15203374/?i=2&from=/17704029/related

Qin, et. al, 2007.

Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer in Western countries: evidence from cohort studies.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17704029/

Rohrmann, et. al, 2009. Dietary intake of meat and meat-derived heterocyclic aromatic amines and their correlation with DNA adducts in female breast tissue.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18980957/

Cooked meat & its association with breast cancer.

Ronco, et. al, 1996. Meat, fat and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study from Uruguay.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8575853/

Meat & mammary cancer.

Samraj, et. al, 2015. A red meat-derived glycan promotes inflammation and cancer progression.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25548184/?i=9&from=inflammation%20meat

Association of red meat & cancer.

Savva, et. al, 2014. Is red meat required for the prevention of iron deficiency among children and adolescents?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25088337/?i=57&from=vegan%20diet

CVD, cancer, diabetes & associations with red meat.

Sinha, et. al, 2000. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, a Carcinogen in High- Temperature-Cooked Meat, and Breast Cancer Risk

http://m.jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/92/16/1352.long

Meat as a mammary carcinogen.

Snowdon, 1988. Animal product consumption and mortality because of all causes combined, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer in Seventh-day Adventists.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/3046303/

Meat consumption positively associated with diabetes, CHD, cancer & stroke.

Stang, et. al, 2006. Adolescent milk fat and galactose consumption and testicular germ cell cancer.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17119045/

Dairy consumption associated with increased testicular cancer.

Steck, et. al, 2007. Cooked meat and risk of breast cancer–lifetime versus recent dietary intake.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17435448/

Cooked meat & breast cancer.

Stolzenberg-Solomon, et. al, 2007. Meat and meat-mutagen intake and pancreatic cancer risk in the NIH-AARP cohort.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18086772/

These findings support the hypothesis that meat intake, particularly meat cooked at high temperatures and associated mutagens, may play a role in pancreatic cancer development.

Talamini, et. al, 2005. Food groups and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A multicenter, case-control study in Italy

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.21737/full

Lymphoma risk increased with cheese consumption, decreased with vegetable consumption.

Tate, et. al, 2011.

Milk stimulates growth of prostate cancer cells in culture.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22043817/

Taylor, et. al, 2007. Meat consumption and risk of breast cancer in the UK Women’s Cohort Study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17406351/

Women who consumed the most meat had the highest risk of breast cancer.

Thiebaut, et. al, 2009. Dietary Fatty Acids and Pancreatic Cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

http://m.jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/06/26/jnci.djp168.short

Increased fat consumption from meat & dairy is associated with increased pancreatic cancer. Interestingly, no such association was made with vegetable fats.

Torfadottir, et. al, 2012.

Milk intake in early life and risk of advanced prostate cancer.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22190107/

van der Pols, et. al, 2007. Childhood dairy intake and adult cancer risk: 65-y follow-up of the Boyd Orr cohort.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18065592/

Families who consumed dairy nearly tripled their odds of colorectal cancer in adulthood.

World Cancer Research Fund, 2007. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer.

http://www.dietandcancerreport.org/cancer_resource_center/downloads/summary/english.pdf

Identified meat (beef, pork, lamb & processed meats) to be cancer promoters.

Xu, et. al, 2006. Animal food intake and cooking methods in relation to endometrial cancer risk in Shanghai.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17060930/

Animal food consumption increases the risk of endometrial cancer.

Dementia

Giem, Beeson, Fraser, 1993. The Incidence of Dementia and Intake of Animal Products: Preliminary Findings from the Adventist Health Study

http://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/110296

Delayed onset of dementia in vegetarians v. meateaters. The

Diabetes

Agrawal, et. al, 2014. Type of vegetarian diet, obesity and diabetes in adult.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25192735/?i=50&from=vegan%20diet

Diabetes risk is lower in vegetarian, lacto-, lacto ovo, & pescatarians.

Aune, et. al, 2009. Meat consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19662376/

Association of meat intake with increased risk of diabetes.

Bao, et. al, 2012. Dietary iron intake, body iron stores, and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23046549/

Meat eaters have higher iron stores – which is directly related to diabetes.

Barnard, et. al, 2006. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16873779/

Low fat vegan diet improved glycemic & lipid control in T2 diabetic patients.

Barnard, et. al, 2009. A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19339401/

Low fat vegan diet improved glycemic & lipid control in T2 diabetic patients.

Bloomer, et. al, 2010. Effect of a 21 day Daniel Fast on metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20815907/

Vegan diet associated with better metabolic health.

Bowers, et. al, 2012. A prospective study of prepregnancy dietary fat intake and risk of gestational diabetes.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22218158/

A higher intake of animal fat led to an increased risk of gestational diabetes.

Chiu, et. al, 2014. Taiwanese vegetarians and omnivores: dietary composition, prevalence of diabetes and IFG.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24523914/

Vegetarians showed an increased protection against diabetes.

Dwyer, 1988. Health aspects of vegetarian diets.

http://m.ajcn.nutrition.org/content/48/3/712

Reduced risk of diabetes associated with vegetarianism.

Fung, et. al, 2004. Dietary patterns, meat intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15534160/

Women who eat meat appear to have a higher risk of diabetes.

Goff, et. al, 2005. Veganism and its relationship with insulin resistance and intramyocellular lipid.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15523486/

Cardio protective diet of vegans. Vegans had lower insulin levels in their muscles than omnivores (via a muscle biopsy!).

Holt, et. al, 1997. An insulin index of foods: the insulin demand generated by 1000-kJ portions of common foods.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9356547/

Beef raises insulin even more than pasta (one risk factor for diabetes).

Hua, et. al, 2001. Low iron status and enhanced insulin sensitivity in lacto-ovo vegetarians.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11591239/

Increased iron storage = increased risk of diabetes. Vegetarians tend to have lower iron stores, but this does not affect them adversely – in fact it protects them from diabetes.

InterAct Consortium, 2013. Association between dietary meat consumption and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22983636/

One of the largest prospective cohort studies ever done on nutrition and disease. Meat = increase in diabetes risk, fruit & vegetables = decrease in diabetes risk.

InterAct Consortium, 2014. Adherence to predefined dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes in European populations: EPIC-InterAct Study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24196190/

Eat more fruits & veggies = less chance of diabetes.

Jiang, et. al, 2004. Body iron stores in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in apparently healthy women.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/14871914/

Higher iron stores (such as that in meat eaters as heme iron is 40% of meat & very easily absorbed) is associated with an increased risk of diabetes.

Karelis, et. al, 2010. Comparison of sex hormonal and metabolic profiles between omnivores and vegetarians in pre- and post-menopausal women.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20211044/

Vegetarians have a lower risk of T2 diabetes.

Ley, et. al, 2014. Associations between red meat intake and biomarkers of inflammation and glucose metabolism in women.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24284436/

Suggests replacing red meat with another protein to counter the increased diabetes risk associated with eating meat.

Melnik, 2011. Evidence for acne-promoting effects of milk and other insulinotropic dairy products.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21335995/

Both, restriction of milk consumption or generation of less insulinotropic milk will have an enormous impact on the prevention of epidemic western diseases like obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and acne.

Nicholson, et. al, 1999. Toward improved management of NIDDM: A randomized, controlled, pilot intervention using a lowfat, vegetarian diet.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10446033/

Vegetarian diet is helpful in managing T2 diabetes.

Pan, et. al, 2011. Red meat consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21831992/

Red meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of diabetes.

Pan, et. al, 2013. Changes in red meat consumption and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: three cohorts of US men and women.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23779232/

Red meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of diabetes.

Qiu, et. al, 2011. Risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in relation to maternal egg and cholesterol intake.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21324948/

Egg consumption was associated with higher risks of gestational diabetes.

+ the risk of congenital malformations from gestational diabetes = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22052679/ + the risk of T2 diabetes post gestational diabetes is higher = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19465232/

Rajpathak, et. al, 2006. Iron intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women: a prospective cohort study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16732023/

Higher heme iron (from meat) intake is associated with a higher risk of T2 diabetes.

Rizzo, 2011. Vegetarian dietary patterns are associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome: the adventist health study 2.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21411506/

Vegetarians have a reduced risk of diabetes.

Romeu, et. al, 2013. Diet, iron biomarkers and oxidative stress in a representative sample of Mediterranean population.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23866833/

Heme iron in meat is associated with more oxidative stress which is a precursor for diabetes.

Savva, et. al, 2014. Is red meat required for the prevention of iron deficiency among children and adolescents?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25088337/?i=57&from=vegan%20diet

CVD, cancer, diabetes & associations with red meat.

Song, et. al, 2004. A prospective study of red meat consumption and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly women: the women’s health study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15333470/

Red meat associated with increased diabetes risk in women.

Snowdon, 1988. Animal product consumption and mortality because of all causes combined, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer in Seventh-day Adventists.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/3046303/

Meat consumption positively associated with diabetes, CHD, cancer & stroke.

Tonstad, et. al, 2009. Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19351712/

Vegans provided the greatest protection against diabetes & obesity.

Tonstad, et. al, 2013. Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21983060/

Diabetes incidence in vegans, lacto ovo vegetarians. Associated with a substantial & independent reduction in diabetes.

van Dam, et. al, 2002. Dietary fat and meat intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in men.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11874924/

Total & saturated fat associated with increased diabetes. Meat consumption. associated with increased diabetes risk.

Vang, et. al, 2008. Meats, processed meats, obesity, weight gain and occurrence of diabetes among adults: findings from Adventist Health Studies.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18349528/

Meat appears to be *correlated* to diabetes versus diabetes incidence in vegetarians.

Vergnaud, et. al, 2010. Meat consumption and prospective weight change in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study

http://m.ajcn.nutrition.org/content/92/2/398.long

Meat (red meat, poultry & processed meats) were positively associated with an increase in weight & correlated diabetes.

Virtanen, et. al, 2000. Cow’s milk consumption, HLA-DQB1 genotype, and type 1 diabetes: a nested case-control study of siblings of children with diabetes. Childhood diabetes in Finland study group.

http://m.diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/49/6/912.short

Cow’s milk consumption can lead to diabetes in children.

Zhang, et. al, 2006. A prospective study of dietary patterns, meat intake and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16957814/

An increase in red & processed meats is associated with an increase in gestational diabetes.

Escherichia albertii

Hinenoya, et. al, 2014. Molecular characterization of cytolethal distending toxin gene-positive Escherichia coli from healthy cattle and swine in Nara, Japan.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24742173/?i=9&from=Escherichia%20albertii

Healthy swine & cattle can be a reservoir for CTEC & cause infection in humans.

Maeda, et. al, 2015. Detection of Escherichia albertii from chicken meat and giblets.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25754935/?i=39&from=chicken%20meat

Chicken as a possible vehicle for Escherichia albertii.

Perez, et. al, 2013. Antibiotic resistance and growth of the emergent pathogen Escherichia albertii on raw ground beef stored under refrigeration, abuse, and physiological temperature.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23317867/?i=16&from=Escherichia%20albertii

EA in hamburger meat.

Gallstones

Cholesterol gallstones are among the most common gastrointestinal disorders in Western societies. There is evidence that dietary factors influence the risk of developing cholesterol gallstones. Dietary factors that may increase risk include cholesterol, saturated fat, trans fatty acids, refined sugar, and possibly legumes. Obesity is also a risk factor for gallstones. Dietary factors that may prevent the development of gallstones include polyunsaturated fat, monounsaturated fat, fiber, and caffeine. Consuming a vegetarian diet is also associated with decreased risk.

There is an appreciably lower frequency of gall stones in vegetarians as compared with non-vegetarian women (11.5% and 24.6% respectively).

An increased intake of energy or fat was associated with an increased risk in young subjects, & vegetarians have been shown to have both lower intakes of fat & energy.

Studies show that people with higher BMI are at risk of gallstones, & again, vegans tend to have lower BMI.

Arnberg, et. al, 2011.

Skim milk, whey, and casein increase body weight and whey and casein increase the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23077192/

Skim milk, casein & whey associated with obesity (primary or secondary status unknown).

Farmer, 2014.

Nutritional adequacy of plant-based diets for weight management: observations from the NHANES.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24871478/?i=5&from=/26193314/related

Vegetarianism effective for weight loss

Gaby, 2009.

Nutritional approaches to prevention and treatment of gallstones.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19803550/

Jeong, et. al, 2012.

[Obesity and gallbladder diseases].

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22289951/?i=6&from=/5910970/related

Obesity is related to higher prevalence of gallbladder disease.

Kennedy, et. al, 2001.

Popular diets: correlation to health, nutrition, and obesity.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11320946/?i=6&from=/26193314/related

Key, et. al, 2006.

Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16441942/?i=5&from=/24871478/related

Vegetarians and vegans have a lower BMI than nonvegetarians.

Scragg, et. al, 1984.

Diet, alcohol, and relative weight in gall stone disease: a case-control study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/6424754/?i=3&from=/3209107/related

Pixley, et. al, 1985.

Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1416200/

Vegetarianism may help prevent gall stones. 632 women recruited from general practice registers and 130 vegetarians. One hundred and fifty-six (25%) of the 632 women who ate meat and 15 (12%) of the 130 vegetarian women either had gall stones visible on ultrasonography or had previously undergone cholecystectomy (p less than 0.01). The prevalence of gall stones was found to increase with age and body mass index. The 2.5 fold increase in risk of developing gall stones in non-vegetarians compared with vegetarians was reduced to 1.9 when controlling for these two potentially confounding factors, but remained significant.

Pixley, et. al, 1988.

Dietary factors in the aetiology of gall stones: a case control study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/3209107/?i=2&from=/3926039/related

Heart disease

Djousse, et. al, 2008. Egg consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease and mortality: the Physicians’ Health Study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18400720/

Infrequent egg consumption didn’t lessen the impact that eggs have on CVD related mortality.

Dwyer, 1988. Health aspects of vegetarian diets.

http://m.ajcn.nutrition.org/content/48/3/712

Reduced risk of CHD associated with vegetarianism.

Esselstyn, et. al, 2014. A way to reverse CAD?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25198208/?i=47&from=vegan%20diet

CVD & plant based diet to prevent future cardiac events.

Keranis, 2010. Impact of dietary shift to higher-antioxidant foods in COPD: a randomised trial.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20150206/

COPD and more antioxidants. Not explicitly vegan but encouraging high antioxidant intake to avoid COPD.

Melnik, et. al, 2009. Milk consumption: aggravating factor of acne and promoter of chronic diseases of Western societies.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19243483/

The milk-induced change of the IGF-1-axis most likely contributes to the development of fetal macrosomia, induction of atopy, accelerated linear growth, atherosclerosis, carcinogenesis and neurodegenerative diseases.

Puska, 2002. Successful prevention of non-communicable diseases: 25 year experiences with North Karelia project in Finland.

http://www.who.int/chp/media/en/north_karelia_successful_ncd_prevention.pdf

Coronary heart disease risk drastically reduced with the ‘dairies to berries’ project in Finland. Farmers switched from dairy farming to berry farming after they reached the highest rates of heart disease in the world – and saw an 80% reduction rate in CHD mortality.

Roberts, 1999. Shifting from decreasing risk to actually preventing and arresting atherosclerosis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10080452/

Arresting atherosclerosis, vegetable intake & rescued meat.

Rosenkranz, 2010. Effects of a high-fat meal on pulmonary function in healthy subjects.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20165863/

High fat = chronic inflammation (heart disease). Doesn’t explicitly state anything about meat or veganism, but typically vegan diets are low-fat. High fat foods are meat & dairy.

Savva, et. al, 2014. Is red meat required for the prevention of iron deficiency among children and adolescents?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25088337/?i=57&from=vegan%20diet

CVD, cancer, diabetes & associations with red meat.

Shridhar, et. al, 2014. The association between a vegetarian diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in India: the Indian Migration Study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25343719/?i=35&from=vegan%20diet

CVD risk lower in vegetarians compared with non-vegetarians.

Snowdon, 1988. Animal product consumption and mortality because of all causes combined, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer in Seventh-day Adventists.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/3046303/

Meat consumption positively associated with diabetes, CHD, cancer & stroke.

Spence, et. al, 2012. Egg yolk consumption and carotid plaque.

http://www.atherosclerosis-journal.com/article/S0021-9150%2812%2900504-7/abstract

People eating as little as 3 eggs a week still had significant artery plaque build up. In fact, eating eggs had the same cardiovascular risks that smoking had.

Sun, et. al, 2007. Plasma and erythrocyte biomarkers of dairy fat intake and risk of ischemic heart disease.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17921367/

Dairy consumption positively associated with ischemic heart disease.

Hormonal disruption

Allen, et. al, 2000.

Hormones and diet: low insulin-like growth factor-1 but normal bioavailable androgens in vegan men.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2374537/pdf/83-6691152a.pdf

Brinkman, et. al, 2010. Consumption of animal products, their nutrient components and postmenopausal circulating steroid hormone concentrations.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19904296/

Meat & dairy seem to be associated with circulating steroid hormones.

Maruyama, et. al, 2010. Exposure to exogenous estrogen through intake of commercial milk produced from pregnant cows.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19496976/

Estrogens in milk are absorbed by humans & may account for the early sexual maturation of children.

Shi, et. al, 2009. Body fat and animal protein intakes are associated with adrenal androgen secretion in children.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19793857/

Body fat mass may relevantly influence prepubertal adrenarchal androgen status. In addition, animal protein intake may also make a small contribution to AA secretion in children.

Stephany, 2010. Hormonal growth promoting agents in food producing animals.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20020373/

Hen eggs are a major source of hormonal growth promoting agents.

Hypertension

Dwyer, 1988. Health aspects of vegetarian diets.

http://m.ajcn.nutrition.org/content/48/3/712

Reduced risk of hypertension associated with vegetarianism.

McDougall, et. al, 1995. Rapid reduction of serum cholesterol and blood pressure by a twelve-day, very low fat, strictly vegetarian diet.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8522729/

Blood pressure & serum cholesterol lowered with elimination of all animal products (+ exercise).

Petterson, et. al, 2012. Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2).

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22230619/

Comparing the Standard American Diet & vegans: vegetarians, especially vegans, with otherwise diverse characteristics but stable diets, do have lower systolic and diastolic BP and less hypertension than omnivores.

Sacks, Rosner & Kass, 1974. BLOOD PRESSURE IN VEGETARIANS

http://m.aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/100/5/390.short

The declared consumption of food of animal origin was highly significantly associated with systolic and diastolic BP after the age and weight effects were removed. Significant association between meat consumption & high blood pressure.

IGF-1

Allen, et. al, 2002.

The Associations of Diet with Serum Insulin-like Growth Factor I and Its Main Binding Proteins in 292 Women Meat-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans

http://m.cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/11/11/1441.long

Inflammation (oxidative stress)

Esposito, et. al, 2003. Effect of dietary antioxidants on postprandial endothelial dysfunction induced by a high-fat meal in healthy subjects.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/12499333/

A high fat meal causes more inflammation than a high carb meal. (Animal products are typically those high in fat, fruits & vegetables are typically those high in carbs).

Estadella, et. al, 2013.

Lipotoxicity: effects of dietary saturated and transfatty acids.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23509418/

High saturated fat & trans fat - These fatty acids can be involved in several inflammatory pathways, contributing to disease progression in chronic inflammation, autoimmunity, allergy, cancer, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart hypertrophy as well as other metabolic and degenerative diseases. As a consequence, lipotoxicity may occur in several target organs by direct effects, represented by inflammation pathways, and through indirect effects, including an important alteration in the gut microbiota associated with endotoxemia

Glick-Bauer, et. al, 2014.

The health advantage of a vegan diet: exploring the gut microbiota connection.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25365383/?i=31&from=vegan%20diet

Vegans have a reduced abundance of pathobionts and a greater abundance of protective species. Reduced levels of inflammation may be the key feature linking the vegan gut microbiota with protective health effects.

Jantchou, et. al, 2010. Animal protein intake and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: The E3N prospective study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20461067/

High animal protein intake is associated with inflammatory bowel disease.

Rosenkranz, et. al, 2010.

Effects of a high-fat meal on pulmonary function in healthy subjects.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20165863/

These results demonstrate that a HFM, which leads to significant increases in total cholesterol, and especially triglycerides, increases exhaled NO (high fat meals contribute to global warming?!). This suggests that a high-fat diet may contribute to chronic inflammatory diseases of the airway and lung.

Riccio, et. al, 2015. Nutrition facts in multiple sclerosis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25694551/?i=5&from=inflammation%20meat

A diet consisting of animal fat, red meat, smoking, lack of exercise & little fiber produced low grade systemic inflammation, worsening MS symptoms.

Turner-McGrievy, et. al, 2015.

Randomization to plant-based dietary approaches leads to larger short-term improvements in Dietary Inflammatory Index scores and macronutrient intake compared with diets that contain meat.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25532675/?i=10&from=inflammation%20meat

Study noted lower inflammation in vegans, more fiber, improved cholesterol, etc. Suggests finding ways to support and promote a plant based diet.

Kidney disease

Lin, Hu, & Curhan, 2010. Associations of Diet with Albuminuria and Kidney Function Decline.

http://m.cjasn.asnjournals.org/content/5/5/836.full.pdf

Diets high in ‘animal protein, animal fat and cholesterol’ associated with increased risk of kidney function decline.

Moe, et. al. Vegetarian Compared with Meat Dietary Protein Source and Phosphorous Homeostasis in Chronic Kidney Disease.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3052214/

Recommends grain based sources of protein for patients with CKD. Encourages eating less meat to adhere to a phosphate restricted diet.

Wiwanitkit, 2007. Renal function parameters of Thai vegans compared with non-vegans.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17365939/

It appears the adoption of a vegan diet reduces the risk of factors regarding renal failure, as vegans had less urine protein (p < 0.05).

Kidney stones

Robertson, et. al, 1979.

Should recurrent calcium oxalate stone formers become vegetarians?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/534817/

Men who ate les meat had less kidney stones.

Liver disease

Greenberger, et. al, 1977. Effect of vegetable and animal protein diets in chronic hepatic encephalopathy.

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01076158

In controlled, randomized, single-blind trials, it was found that a vegetable-protein diet resulted in overall clinical improvement, decreased hepatic encephalopathy index scores, decreased arterial ammonia levels, improved performance on intellectual tasks, and in one case, markedly improved protein tolerance.

Longevity

Singh, et. al, 2013.

Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans?http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/12936945/?i=6&from=/8327020/related

Greater longevity associated with a vegetarian diet.

Mental health

Beezhold & Johnston. Restriction of meat, fish, and poultry in omnivores improves mood: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

http://www.nutritionj.com/content/11/1/9

Restricting meat, fish, and poultry improved some domains of short-term mood state in modern omnivores.

Beezhold, et. al, 2010. Vegetarian diets are associated with healthy mood states: a cross-sectional study in seventh day adventist adults.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20515497/

Vegetarians had less negative emotions than omnivores, improved mood.

Oddy, et. al, 2009. The association between dietary patterns and mental health in early adolescence.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19467256/

Improved behaviour in adolescents with higher intake in greens fruits and vegetables versus a Western diet.

Mercury Content in Fish (& Other Areas of Concern)

Contrary to the slick advertisements of the fish industry, or the misinformed American doctors who only receive around THREE HOURS of nutrition information during their eight-year medical programs, fish is not a health food. With mercury, dioxin & PCBs, fish meat is one of he most contaminated food products available. Claims about omega fatty acids being found solely in fish are absolute lies. Some fish have omegas because they’ve eaten algae/seaweed or consumed other fish who have already eaten algae/seaweed. Every vitamin, mineral and nutrient comes from the earth in the form of fruits, vegetables (sea or land), nuts, seeds, grains & legumes, and bacteria. Animal products only contain trace amounts of vitamins, minerals & nutrients because animals eat plants (sea or land). Meat is, at best, a secondary source of essential elements. Açaí (fruit), beans, black currant seed oil, blue-green algae, borage seed oil, cabbage, canola oil, flax (oil/seeds), chlorella, corn, green vegetables (leafy), hemp (oil/seed/powder/milk), pine nuts, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, soy, sprouts (all), squash, vegetable oils, walnuts & wheat all contain omega fatty acids which are converted in the body.

Aguilar, 2002.

Geographical and temporal variation in levels of organochlorine contaminants in marine mammals.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12054104

Carta, et. al, 2003. Sub-clinical neurobehavioral abnormalities associated with low level of mercury exposure through fish consumption.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12900074

People who ate fish suffered from neurobehavioral abnormalities versus people who don't eat fish – they felt fine, but they scored lower on a variety of neurological tests.

Griffini, 1998.

Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote colon carcinoma metastasis in rat liver.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9699661 Fish & cancer.

Guallar, 2002.

Mercury, fish oils, and the risk of myocardial infarction.

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa020157 Toenail clippings showed an increasing buildup of mercury, virtually doubling their risk of a heart attack.

Ho, et. al, 2009. Amnesia, political ambition, and canned tuna.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19167574/

An extreme case of a man who ate a can of tuna every day (this practice is NOT unusual in people interested in animal protein without the risks of red meat) & was actually hospitalized in a mental health facility.

Jacobson, 2002.

Association of prenatal exposure to an environmental contaminant with intellectual function in childhood.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12216999 Children scored lower on verbal & IQ skills.

Karimi, et. al, 2012. A quantitative synthesis of mercury in commercial seafood and implications for exposure in the United States.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22732656/

Hg levels are difficult to measure in commercial seafood; ramifications can be large for consumption.

Klieveri, 2000.

Promotion of colon cancer metastases in rat liver by fish oil diet is not due to reduced stroma formation.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11467768 Fish & cancer.

Lipp, 1997. The role of seafood in foodborne diseases in the United States of America.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9501377

Peng, et. al, 2015. Human exposure to methylmercury from crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in China.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25850898/?i=5&from=mercury%20fish

Mercury exposure increased in those who eat a lot of crayfish.

Pennington. Bowes & Church’s Food Values of Portions Commonly Used. 17th Ed. Lippincott. Philadelphia- New York. 1998.

Neurotoxins

Louis, et. al, 2007.

Quantification of the neurotoxic beta-carboline harmane in barbecued/grilled meat samples and correlation with level of doneness.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17497412

Harmane, one of the heterocyclic amines (HCAs), is a potent neurotoxin linked to human diseases. Dietary exposure, especially in cooked meats, is the major source of exogenous exposure for humans. Evidence indicates that harmane was detectable in nanograms per gram quantities in cooked meat (especially chicken) and, moreover, was more abundant than other HCAs. There was some correlation between meat doneness and harmane concentration, although this correlation was less robust than that observed for PhIP. Data such as these may be used to improve estimation of human dietary exposure to this neurotoxin.

Osteoporosis

Abelow, Holford & Insogna, 1992. Cross-cultural association between dietary animal protein and hip fracture: A hypothesis

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00297291

A strong, positive association between dairy & osteoporosis; showing that places with the least amount of dietary calcium intake had the lower fracture rates.

Feskanich, et. al, 1997. Milk, dietary calcium, and bone fractures in women: a 12-year prospective study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9224182/

Those who drank 3 glasses of milk per day had no reduction in fracture rate versus those who drank none. In fact, they had a slightly higher fracture rate.

Frassetto, et. al, 1999. Worldwide Incidence of Hip Fracture in Elderly Women: Relation to Consumption of Animal and Vegetable Foods

http://m.biomedgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/55/10/M585.short

Animal food consumption appears to be associated with osteoporosis.

Ho-Pham, et. al, 2009. Veganism, bone mineral density, and body composition: a study in Buddhist nuns.

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00198-009-0916-z

These results suggest that, although vegans have much lower intakes of dietary calcium and protein than omnivores, veganism does not have adverse effect on bone mineral density and does not alter body composition.

PCRM, 2005.

http://pcrm.org/search/?cid=1010

Discusses the meta-analysis of 58 studies which finds that milk is not preventative in osteoperosis or bone health.

Remer & Manz, 1994.

Estimation of the renal net acid excretion by adults consuming diets containing variable amounts of protein.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8198060 Discusses the fact that when meat was eliminated, osteoperosis incidents cut in half.

Sellmeyer, et. al, 2001. A high ratio of dietary animal to vegetable protein increases the rate of bone loss and the risk of fracture in postmenopausal women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11124760/

Rapid femoral neck bone loss & greater risk of hip fracture in elderly people with a high meat to vegetable protein ratio. Suggests more vegetable protein.

Staphylococcus

Osman, et. al, 2015. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Staphylococcus Species in Chicken and Beef Raw Meat in Egypt.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25789407/?i=26&from=chicken%20meat

Staphylococcus food poisoning in chicken & red meat. According to the CDC this cannot be killed by cooking. http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/staphylococcal/

Rahbar Saadat, et. al, 2014. Prevalence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in organic milk and cheese in Tabriz, Iran.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25848526/?i=13&from=dairy%20products

Staphylococcus present in 27% of organic milk & cheese.

Miscellaneous

Campbell, et. al, 1994.

Diet and chronic degenerative diseases: perspectives from China.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8172116/

Animal product consumption associated with increased risk of disease.

Cassidy, et. al, 2009. Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with body composition and plant-based dietary factors in female twins.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19106327/

This large study suggests a plant based diet in combating obesity, CVD & diabetes.

Chang, et. al, 2012.

A bean-free diet increases the risk of all-cause mortality among Taiwanese women: the role of the metabolic syndrome.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21899787/

Health risks associated with a bean-free diet.

Chen, et. al, 2006. Consumption of Dairy Products and Risk of Parkinson's Disease.

http://m.aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/165/9/998.long

The data appears to suggest that dairy consumption may increase the risk of Parkinson's in men.

Dewell, et. al, 2008. A Very Low-Fat Vegan Diet Increases Intake of Protective Dietary Factors and Decreases Intake of Pathogenic Dietary Factors.

http://www.ornishspectrum.com/wp-content/uploads/A-Very-Low-Fat-Vegan-Diet-Increases.pdf

One year as a vegan reduces risk of cancer, CVD, diabetes & macular degeneration.

Edgar, et. al, 2009. Increased fruit and vegetable consumption improves antibody response to vaccination in older people: the ADIT study

http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=6&fid=7791676&jid=PNS&volumeId=69&issueId=OCE3&aid=7791675&bodyId=&membershipNumber=&societyETOCSession=&fulltextType=AB&fileId=S0029665110000273

Improved antibody response to vaccinations in elderly when they are more fruits & vegetables.

Glick-Bauer, et. al, 2014. The health advantage of a vegan diet: exploring the gut microbiota connection.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25365383/?i=31&from=vegan%20diet

Vegans have a reduced abundance of pathobionts and a greater abundance of protective species. Reduced levels of inflammation may be the key feature linking the vegan gut microbiota with protective health effects.

Goff, et. al, 2004. Veganism and its relationship with insulin resistance and intramyocellular lipid.

http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v59/n2/abs/1602076a.html

Vegans have a food intake and a biochemical profile that will be expected to be cardioprotective, with lower IMCL accumulation and beta-cell protective.

Karlic, et. al, 2008. Vegetarian diet affects genes of oxidative metabolism and collagen synthesis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18772587/

These findings show a changed fat metabolism and reduced collagen synthesis in vegetarians, which could also play a role in the aging process.

Le, et. al, 2014. Beyond meatless, the health effects of vegan diets: findings from the Adventist cohorts.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24871675/?i=83&from=vegan%20diet

Vegetarian diets confer protection against cardiovascular diseases, cardiometabolic risk factors, some cancers and total mortality. Compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, vegan diets seem to offer additional protection for obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular mortality. Males experience greater health benefits than females.

Lee, et. al, 2008. Increased prevalence of constipation in pre-school children is attributable to under-consumption of plant foods: A community-based study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17854410/

School children with high intakes of milk & low intakes of fiber are more likely to suffer from constipation.

Liszt, et. al, 2009. Characterization of bacteria, clostridia and Bacteroides in faeces of vegetarians using qPCR and PCR-DGGE fingerprinting.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19641302/

A vegetarian diet affects the intestinal microbiota, especially by decreasing the amount and changing the diversity of Clostridium cluster IV. They also had a higher percentage of bacterial DNA.

McCarty, et. al, 2009.

The low-methionine content of vegan diets may make methionine restriction feasible as a life extension strategy.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18789600/

Low methionine diet of a vegan may help promote longevity.

McDougall, et. al, 2013. Plant-based diets are not nutritionally deficient.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24361028/?i=150&from=vegan%20diet

Vegan diets are not detrimental to health and are in fact, nutritionally superior in some ways.

Messina, 2010. Soybean isoflavone exposure does not have feminizing effects on men: a critical examination of the clinical evidence.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20378106/

Soy does NOT have a feminizing effect on men.

Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee

http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015-scientific-report/04-integration.asp

http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015-scientific-report/PDFs/Scientific-Report-of-the-2015-Dietary-Guidelines-Advisory-Committee.pdf

This is the first time the committee has concluded a diet higher in plant-based foods and low in animal-based foods to not only be both healthier for the body, but better for the environment

  • Roughly half of American adults have one or more chronic diseases related to poor diet and inactivity

  • Preventable diseases include cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers

  • More than two-thirds of American adults are overweight or obese

  • Nearly one-third of children are overweight or obese

  • Chronic diseases disproportionately affect low-income communities

  • Focus on disease treatment rather than prevention increases and strains health care costs and reduces overall health

  • “Quantitative modeling research showed how healthy dietary patterns relate to positive environmental outcomes that improve population food security. Moderate to strong evidence demonstrates that healthy dietary patterns that are higher in plant-based foods, such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds, and lower in calories and animal-based foods are associated with more favorable environmental outcomes (lower greenhouse gas emissions and more favorable land, water, and energy use) than are current U.S. dietary patterns.”

Tang, et. al, 2010. Calcium absorption in Australian osteopenic post-menopausal women: an acute comparative study of fortified soymilk to cows' milk.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20460239/

Soy milk has comparable calcium absorption to cow's milk, despite having LESS calcium content.

Tonstad, et. al, 2014. Prevalence of hyperthyroidism according to type of vegetarian diet.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25263477/?i=41&from=vegan%20diet

Exclusion of all animal foods was associated with half the prevalence of hyperthyroidism compared with omnivorous diets. Lacto-ovo and pesco vegetarian diets were associated with intermediate protection.

Turner-McGrievy, et. al, 2014. Key elements of plant-based diets associated with reduced risk of metabolic syndrome.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25084991/?i=59&from=vegan%20diet

This study found better metabolic risk factors and lowered risk of metabolic syndrome among individuals following plant-based diets, as compared with omnivores. Some dietary components that are lower in the diets of vegetarians, such as energy intake, saturated fat, heme iron, and red and processed meat, may influence metabolic syndrome risk. In addition, plant-based diets are higher in fruits, vegetables, and fiber, which are protective against the development of metabolic syndrome.

Turner-McGrievy, et. al, 2014. Low glycemic index vegan or low-calorie weight loss diets for women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled feasibility study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25026923/?i=66&from=vegan%20diet

This study found that the adoption of a vegan diet may be effective for promoting short-term weight loss among women with PCOS.

Turner-McGrievy, et. al, 2015. Randomization to plant-based dietary approaches leads to larger short-term improvements in Dietary Inflammatory Index scores and macronutrient intake compared with diets that contain meat.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25532675/?i=10&from=inflammation%20meat

Study noted lower inflammation in vegans, more fiber, improved cholesterol, etc. Suggests finding ways to support and promote a plant based diet.

Tuso, et. al, 2013.

Nutritional Update for Physicians: Plant-Based Diets.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3662288/

A case study chronicling the health benefits of a plant based diet - including decreasing several health risk factors. Recommends plant based diet and avoiding meat.

Vandenplas, et. al, 2014. Safety of soya-based infant formulas in children.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24507712/?i=134&from=vegan%20diet

Modern soy formulas are evidence-based safety options to feed children requiring them. The patterns of growth, bone health & metabolic, reproductive, endocrine, immune & neurological functions are similar to those observed in children fed cow's milk formula or human milk.

White & Frank, 1994. Health effects and prevalence of vegetarianism.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1022500/?page=6

Finds vegetarianism is best for people with high cardiovascular and cancer risks. Also delves into the environmental impacts as well. ——-

http://nutritionfacts.org/video/uprooting-the-leading-causes-of-death/

Uprooting the leading causes of death video, with various articles found here but in an easy to understand format.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19562864/

American dietetic association stance vegetarianism.

Levine, et. al, 2014. Low Protein Intake Is Associated with a Major Reduction in IGF-1, Cancer, and Overall Mortality in the 65 and Younger but Not Older Population

http://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/abstract/S1550-4131%2814%2900062-X

Animal protein as a toxin.

#vegan #health #diet #nutrition #pubmed #veganism #govegan #veganresources

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