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Vegan Resources: Health, Nutrition & Disease


Behold! One of the most comprehensive & extensive databases of scholarly articles regarding nutrition & the pressing need for a plant based diet you will ever find.

Most of these articles highlight the health risks associated with the Standard American Diet (S.A.D) of high meat & dairy consumption, but some of them focus more generally on improved dietic practices & the health benefits of plant based eating. It’s important that you don’t look at the quantity of articles, but look at the actual data – look at the evidence. Acknowledge the shortcomings, but notice that many of the gaps left in one study are filled or picked up by a subsequent study.

Please note that I am not a doctor. I’m also not a scientist (except for that time I had a Doctor Dreadful set – I was definitely a Mad Scientist then). I’m just passionate about veganism & it’s health benefits (& environmental benefits – & it goes without saying, the animal lives it saves is my driving force behind all of this). I'm not here to peddle pseudoscientific claims – where there are omissions, the studies acknowledge them – nothing here is to be taken as absolute fact, but instead as a piece to a much larger puzzle. Each study is another piece, & when you put each piece together, the larger picture becomes clearer.

I’m also not here to demonize meat & dairy – I’ll let these scientists & doctors & researchers do that for me. Ha-ha! But seriously.

I’ve categorized the articles into headings like Cancer, Diabetes, Kidney Disease, etc., based on the type of research you will find under that heading. Ideally this will make it easier to navigate. Under each heading I have alphabetized the research by the first author’s last name. For the sake of my sanity, I have left out many subsequent author’s names & replaced them with ‘et. al’, as is common practice in the academic community. If you are interested in seeing the rest of the author’s names, you can click on the handy-dandy link I’ve provided.

Each entry will have a name, a publishing date, a title, a link, & usually a short summary of the issues addressed in the study and/or the results/findings of the study. Some entries are in books, & I have provided the information you will need to track those books down if you so choose.

I’ve worked long & hard, ceaselessly, tirelessly. Every spare moment I’ve had, I found myself stealing away to read more articles, do more searches, delve deeper into the world of nutrition & biology. After all, it’s important to understand how our body works, and how what we put into it affects it.

By no means is this a complete list. There are many other studies out there, some I’ve come across and lost, others underneath stones yet to be turned over. I plan to add to this list as I come across new information and new studies. And please, if you have a scholarly article you would like to see added to this body of research; if you notice an error or repeated entry (please note that some entries are duplicated under different headings on purpose) that I may have overlooked during my zombie sessions late at night; or if you have any questions or concerns, please don’t hesitate to contact me. You can message me via Instagram @veganacnesufferers or you can email me personally at veganacnesufferers@gmail.com, or via the "Contact" page.

Remember folks …

Correlation /= causation, but where there’s THIS much smoke .. there has to be fire.

Acne

Adebamowo, et. al, 2005. High school dietary dairy intake and teenage acne.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15692464/

This study found a positive association with acne for intake of total milk and skim milk. They hypothesize that the association with milk may be because of the presence of hormones and bioactive molecules in milk.

Adebamowo, et. al, 2006. Milk consumption and acne in adolescent girls.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17083856/

This study found a positive association between intake of milk and acne. This finding supports earlier studies and suggests that the metabolic effects of milk are sufficient to elicit biological responses in consumers.

Adebamowo, et. al, 2008. Milk consumption and acne in teenaged boys.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18194824/

This study found a positive association between intake of skim milk and acne. This finding suggests that skim milk contains hormonal constituents, or factors that influence endogenous hormones, in sufficient quantities to have biological effects in consumers.

Danby, 2008. Diet and acne.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18280909/

Danny, 2009. Acne, dairy and cancer: The 5alpha-P link.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20046583/

Dairy consumption is associated with breast & prostate cancer, & acne.

Di Landro, et. al, 2012. Family history, body mass index, selected dietary factors, menstrual history, and risk of moderate to severe acne in adolescents and young adults.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22386050/

This study used adolescents and young adults, and found 78% higher risk of acne in those drinking more than 3 servings per week of milk.

Melnik, 2009.

Milk consumption: aggravating factor of acne and promoter of chronic diseases of Western societies. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19243483/

Melnik, 2011. Evidence for acne-promoting effects of milk and other insulinotropic dairy products.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21335995/

Both, restriction of milk consumption or generation of less insulinotropic milk will have an enormous impact on the prevention of epidemic western diseases like obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and acne.

Antibiotic Resistance

Goldman, 2004. Antibiotic abuse in animal agriculture: Exacerbating drug resistance in human pathogens.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10807030490281016

Recognizes that the casual use of antibiotics in the agricultural industry is a global issue threatening humans.

Siriken et. al, 2015. Prevalence and Characterization of Salmonella Isolated from Chicken Meat in Turkey.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25817042/?i=17&from=chicken%20meat

Salmonella & antibiotic resistance in chicken.

Van Boeckel, et. al, 2015. Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25792457/?i=22&from=chicken%20meat

Antimicrobial increase in chicken.

Torralbo, et. al, 2015. Higher resistance of Campylobacter coli compared to Campylobacter jejuni at chicken slaughterhouse.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25770597/?i=33&from=chicken%20meat

Antibiotic resistance & prominence of campylobacter in chicken.

Witte, 1998. Medical Consequences of Antibiotic Use in Agriculture

http://m.sciencemag.org/content/279/5353/996.short

B12

McDougall, 2007.

https://www.drmcdougall.com/misc/2007nl/nov/b12.htm

Shaw.

http://libaware.economads.com/b12issue.php

Tucker, et. al, 2000. Plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations relate to cintake source in the Framingham Offspring Study

http://m.ajcn.nutrition.org/content/71/2/514.long

39% of Americans are B12 deficient. If vegans are only 1% of the population, how could B12 be a vegan issue?

Campylobacter

Guyard-Nicodeme, et. al, 2015. Prevalence and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken meat sold in French retail outlets.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25770428/?i=34&from=chicken%20meat

Campylobacter at the consumer level found in chicken in France.

Hansson, et. al, 2015. Associations between Campylobacter levels on chicken skin, underlying muscle, caecum and packaged fillets.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25791006/?i=24&from=chicken%20meat

Campylobacter found in chicken skin/breast/muscle.

Cancer

Allen, et. al, 2000. Hormones and diet: low insulin-like growth factor-1 but normal bioavailable androgens in vegan men.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2374537/pdf/83-6691152a.pdf

Cancer IGF1 in vegans, vegetarians & meat eaters.

Allen, et. al, 2002. The Associations of Diet with Serum Insulin-like Growth Factor I and Its Main Binding Proteins in 292 Women Meat-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans

http://m.cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/11/11/1441.long

Cancer IGF1 in ️vegans, vegetarians & meat eaters. Vegans have lower levels of IGF1 & higher levels of IGF1 inhibitors (although their relationship is not entirely understood).

Aune, et. al, 2009. Egg consumption and the risk of cancer: a multisite case-control study in Uruguay.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20104980/

Egg consumption associated with an increased risk in all cancers. Suggests further research to corroborate.

Barnard, et. al, 1995. The Medical Costs Attributable to Meat Consumption.

http://www.birdflubook.org/resources/Barnard_1995_PM_24_646.pdf

Meat associated with increased cancer risk – these figures are also underestimated.

Barnard, et. al, 2006. Effects of a low-fat, high-fiber diet and exercise program on breast cancer risk factors in vivo and tumor cell growth and apoptosis in vitro.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16965238/

These results show that a very-low-fat, high-fiber diet combined with daily exercise results in major reductions in risk factors for BCa while subjects remained overweight/obese. Not explicitly vegan but high fat diets are typically associated with meat, & high fiber diets are associated with vegetables & fruit.

Beasley, et. al, 2011. Post-diagnosis dietary factors and survival after invasive breast cancer.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21197569/

Lowered intakes of saturated and trans fats are associated with improved survival rate after breast cancer diagnosis.

(http://appliedresearch.cancer.gov/diet/foodsources/sat_fat/sf.html Sources of high saturated fat: dairy, eggs, meat, pasta, candy).

Chan, et. al, 1998. Dairy products, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, and risk of prostate cancer (Sweden).

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1008823601897

High consumption of dairy was associated with a 50% increase in cancer risk.

Chan, et. al, 2001. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians’ Health Study.

http://m.ajcn.nutrition.org/content/74/4/549.short

Increased risk of prostate cancer with consumption of dairy.

Chan, et. al, 2011. Red and processed meat and colorectal cancer incidence: meta-analysis of prospective studies.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21674008/

Meat associated with increase in colorectal, colon & rectal cancers.

Cho, et. al, 2003. Premenopausal Fat Intake and Risk of Breast Cancer.

http://m.jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/14/1079.full.pdf

Total fat intake didn’t indicate an increased risk of breast cancer – however ANIMAL fat intake IS positively associated with breast cancer.

Danny, 2009. Acne, dairy and cancer: The 5alpha-P link.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20046583/

Dairy consumption is associated with breast & prostate cancer.

DeBruin, et. al, 2001. Detection of PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) in the milk of healthy women.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11712910/

Association between meat & breast cancer risk.

De Noni, et. al, 2009.

Review of the Potential Health Impact of Beta-Casomorphins and Related Peptides.

http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/231r.pdf

Donaldson, 2004. Nutrition and cancer: a review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15496224/?i=1&from=flax%20seed%20colorectal Breast, colorectal & prostate cancer – an anti-cancer diet means less meat & more fiber.

Ganmaa, et. al, 2001.

Incidence and mortality of testicular and prostatic cancers in relation to world dietary practices

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.10185/abstract

Ganmaa, et. al, 2005. The possible role of female sex hormones in milk from pregnant cows in the development of breast, ovarian and corpus uteri cancers.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16125328/

Milk & dairy products were positively associated with higher risk levels of hormone related cancers (breast, ovarian & corpus uteri).

Gao, LaValley & Tucker, 2005. Prospective Studies of Dairy Product and Calcium Intakes and Prostate Cancer Risk: A meta-analysis.

http://m.jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/97/23/1768.short

Dairy consumption associated with an increased prostate cancer risk.

Gonzalez, et. al, 2006. Meat intake and risk of stomach and esophageal adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16507831/

Total, red, and processed meat intakes were associated with an increased risk of gastric non-cardia cancer, especially in H. pylori antibody-positive subjects, but not with cardia gastric cancer.

Gueraud, et. al, 2015. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and heme iron induce oxidative stress bio markers and a cancer promoting environment in the colon of rats.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25744414/?i=3&from=inflammation%20meat

Rats fed heme iron (meat) had increasingly toxic feces, an indicator for colorectal cancer.

Jiao, et. al, 2015. Dietary consumption of advanced glycation end products and pancreatic cancer in the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25527756/?i=11&from=inflammation%20meat

Confirms a positive association of red meat & pancreatic cancer.

Key, et. al, 2009. Cancer incidence in British vegetarians.

http://www.nature.com/bjc/journal/v101/n1/full/6605098a.html

Associated reduced risk of ALL types of cancer with vegetarianism – “drastically” reduced risk, approximately 48% (specifically leukemia, multiple myeloma, & NH lymphoma).

Knekt, et. al, 1994. Intake of fried meat and risk of cancer: a follow-up study in Finland.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7989114/

Meat consumption & mammary, ovary & endometrial cancers.

Larsson, et. al, 2006. Meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16991129/

Red & processed meat associated with an increase in colorectal cancer.

Larsson, et. al, 2006. Processed meat consumption, dietary nitrosamines and stomach cancer risk in a cohort of Swedish women.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16550597/

Women who ate processed meats were more likely to get stomach cancer.

Lauber, et. al, 2004. The cooked food derived carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine is a potent oestrogen: a mechanistic basis for its tissue-specific carcinogenicity.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15319301/

Meat as a carcinogen & association with breast cancer.

Lauber, 2011. The cooked meat-derived mammary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine promotes invasive behaviour of breast cancer cells.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20951759/

Breast cancer & meat.

Lucenteforte, et. al, 2010. Macronutrients, fatty acids, cholesterol and pancreatic cancer.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19850469/

A diet high in sugars from fruit & low in animal fat improves pancreatic cancer risk.

Mahfouz, et. al, 2014. role of dietary and lifestyle factors in the development of colorectal cancer: case control study in Minia, Egypt. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25622477/?i=19&from=colorectal%20cancer%20diet

Colorectal cancer & it’s risk factors – red meat, processed meat. Improving factors were eating more vegetables, exercise, etc.

Melnik, et. al, 2009. Milk consumption: aggravating factor of acne and promoter of chronic diseases of Western societies.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19243483/

The milk-induced change of the IGF-1-axis most likely contributes to the development of fetal macrosomia, induction of atopy, accelerated linear growth, atherosclerosis, carcinogenesis and neurodegenerative diseases.

Melnik, 2011. Evidence for acne-promoting effects of milk and other insulinotropic dairy products.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21335995/

Both, restriction of milk consumption or generation of less insulinotropic milk will have an enormous impact on the prevention of epidemic western diseases like obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and acne. Funded by NESTLE!

Michaud, et. al, 2006. Meat intake and bladder cancer risk in 2 prospective cohort studies.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17093172/

Increase in bladder cancer risk particularly in those who regularly consume bacon.

Murtaugh, et. al, 2004. Meat Consumption Patterns and Preparation, Genetic Variants of Metabolic Enzymes, and Their Association with Rectal Cancer in Men and Women

http://m.jn.nutrition.org/content/134/4/776.full

Increase in rectal cancer in men associated with increased red meat consumption.

Norat, et. al, 2005. Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15956652/

Red meat & processed meat positively associated with colorectal cancer.

Orlich, et. al, 2015. Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancers. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25751512/?i=4&from=colorectal%20cancer%20diet

Colorectal cancer – ️ a vegan diet v pescatarian diet v semivegetarian etc. Non-vegetarians have a higher risk of colorectal cancer.

Ornish, et. al, 2005. Intensive lifestyle changes may affect the progression of prostate cancer.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16094059/

Prostate cancer & dietary changes. Doesn’t explicitly state veganism, though it does advocate for a ‘healthy’ change.

Otsuki, et. al, 2007. Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, lifestyle-related diseases.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17220612/

Pancreatic cancer & chronic pancreatitis are both associated with animal fat intake – genetics & environmental factors may exacerbate the role nutrition plays.

Parkin, 2011. Cancers attributable to dietary factors in the UK in 2010.

http://www.nature.com/bjc/journal/v105/n2s/abs/bjc2011478a.html

Colon & rectal cancer highest in people who consumed processed meats (ham, bacon, sausages) & red meat.

Qin, et. al, 2004.

Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer: meta-analysis of case-control studies.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15203374/?i=2&from=/17704029/related

Qin, et. al, 2007.

Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer in Western countries: evidence from cohort studies.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17704029/

Rohrmann, et. al, 2009. Dietary intake of meat and meat-derived heterocyclic aromatic amines and their correlation with DNA adducts in female breast tissue.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18980957/

Cooked meat & its association with breast cancer.

Ronco, et. al, 1996. Meat, fat and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study from Uruguay.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8575853/

Meat & mammary cancer.

Samraj, et. al, 2015. A red meat-derived glycan promotes inflammation and cancer progression.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25548184/?i=9&from=inflammation%20meat

Association of red meat & cancer.

Savva, et. al, 2014. Is red meat required for the prevention of iron deficiency among children and adolescents?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25088337/?i=57&from=vegan%20diet

CVD, cancer, diabetes & associations with red meat.

Sinha, et. al, 2000. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, a Carcinogen in High- Temperature-Cooked Meat, and Breast Cancer Risk

http://m.jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/92/16/1352.long

Meat as a mammary carcinogen.

Snowdon, 1988. Animal product consumption and mortality because of all causes combined, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer in Seventh-day Adventists.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/3046303/

Meat consumption positively associated with diabetes, CHD, cancer & stroke.

Stang, et. al, 2006. Adolescent milk fat and galactose consumption and testicular germ cell cancer.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17119045/

Dairy consumption associated with increased testicular cancer.

Steck, et. al, 2007. Cooked meat and risk of breast cancer–lifetime versus recent dietary intake.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17435448/

Cooked meat & breast cancer.

Stolzenberg-Solomon, et. al, 2007. Meat and meat-mutagen intake and pancreatic cancer risk in the NIH-AARP cohort.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18086772/

These findings support the hypothesis that meat intake, particularly meat cooked at high temperatures and associated mutagens, may play a role in pancreatic cancer development.

Talamini, et. al, 2005. Food groups and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A multicenter, case-control study in Italy

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.21737/full

Lymphoma risk increased with cheese consumption, decreased with vegetable consumption.

Tate, et. al, 2011.

Milk stimulates growth of prostate cancer cells in culture.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22043817/

Taylor, et. al, 2007. Meat consumption and risk of breast cancer in the UK Women’s Cohort Study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17406351/

Women who consumed the most meat had the highest risk of breast cancer.

Thiebaut, et. al, 2009. Dietary Fatty Acids and Pancreatic Cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

http://m.jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/06/26/jnci.djp168.short

Increased fat consumption from meat & dairy is associated with increased pancreatic cancer. Interestingly, no such association was made with vegetable fats.

Torfadottir, et. al, 2012.

Milk intake in early life and risk of advanced prostate cancer.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22190107/

van der Pols, et. al, 2007. Childhood dairy intake and adult cancer risk: 65-y follow-up of the Boyd Orr cohort.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18065592/

Families who consumed dairy nearly tripled their odds of colorectal cancer in adulthood.

World Cancer Research Fund, 2007. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer.

http://www.dietandcancerreport.org/cancer_resource_center/downloads/summary/english.pdf

Identified meat (beef, pork, lamb & processed meats) to be cancer promoters.

Xu, et. al, 2006. Animal food intake and cooking methods in relation to endometrial cancer risk in Shanghai.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17060930/

Animal food consumption increases the risk of endometrial cancer.

Dementia

Giem, Beeson, Fraser, 1993. The Incidence of Dementia and Intake of Animal Products: Preliminary Findings from the Adventist Health Study

http://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/110296

Delayed onset of dementia in vegetarians v. meateaters. The

Diabetes

Agrawal, et. al, 2014. Type of vegetarian diet, obesity and diabetes in adult.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25192735/?i=50&from=vegan%20diet

Diabetes risk is lower in vegetarian, lacto-, lacto ovo, & pescatarians.

Aune, et. al, 2009. Meat consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19662376/

Association of meat intake with increased risk of diabetes.

Bao, et. al, 2012. Dietary iron intake, body iron stores, and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23046549/

Meat eaters have higher iron stores – which is directly related to diabetes.

Barnard, et. al, 2006. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16873779/

Low fat vegan diet improved glycemic & lipid control in T2 diabetic patients.

Barnard, et. al, 2009. A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19339401/

Low fat vegan diet improved glycemic & lipid control in T2 diabetic patients.

Bloomer, et. al, 2010. Effect of a 21 day Daniel Fast on metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20815907/

Vegan diet associated with better metabolic health.

Bowers, et. al, 2012. A prospective study of prepregnancy dietary fat intake and risk of gestational diabetes.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22218158/

A higher intake of animal fat led to an increased risk of gestational diabetes.

Chiu, et. al, 2014. Taiwanese vegetarians and omnivores: dietary composition, prevalence of diabetes and IFG.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24523914/

Vegetarians showed an increased protection against diabetes.

Dwyer, 1988. Health aspects of vegetarian diets.

http://m.ajcn.nutrition.org/content/48/3/712

Reduced risk of diabetes associated with vegetarianism.

Fung, et. al, 2004. Dietary patterns, meat intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15534160/

Women who eat meat appear to have a higher risk of diabetes.

Goff, et. al, 2005. Veganism and its relationship with insulin resistance and intramyocellular lipid.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15523486/

Cardio protective diet of vegans. Vegans had lower insulin levels in their muscles than omnivores (via a muscle biopsy!).

Holt, et. al, 1997. An insulin index of foods: the insulin demand generated by 1000-kJ portions of common foods.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9356547/

Beef raises insulin even more than pasta (one risk factor for diabetes).

Hua, et. al, 2001. Low iron status and enhanced insulin sensitivity in lacto-ovo vegetarians.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11591239/

Increased iron storage = increased risk of diabetes. Vegetarians tend to have lower iron stores, but this does not affect them adversely – in fact it protects them from diabetes.

InterAct Consortium, 2013. Association between dietary meat consumption and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22983636/

One of the largest prospective cohort studies ever done on nutrition and disease. Meat = increase in diabetes risk, fruit & vegetables = decrease in diabetes risk.

InterAct Consortium, 2014. Adherence to predefined dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes in European populations: EPIC-InterAct Study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24196190/

Eat more fruits & veggies = less chance of diabetes.

Jiang, et. al, 2004. Body iron stores in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in apparently healthy women.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/14871914/

Higher iron stores (such as that in meat eaters as heme iron is 40% of meat & very easily absorbed) is associated with an increased risk of diabetes.

Karelis, et. al, 2010. Comparison of sex hormonal and metabolic profiles between omnivores and vegetarians in pre- and post-menopausal women.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20211044/

Vegetarians have a lower risk of T2 diabetes.

Ley, et. al, 2014. Associations between red meat intake and biomarkers of inflammation and glucose metabolism in women.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24284436/

Suggests replacing red meat with another protein to counter the increased diabetes risk associated with eating meat.

Melnik, 2011. Evidence for acne-promoting effects of milk and other insulinotropic dairy products.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21335995/

Both, restriction of milk consumption or generation of less insulinotropic milk will have an enormous impact on the prevention of epidemic western diseases like obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and acne.

Nicholson, et. al, 1999. Toward improved management of NIDDM: A randomized, controlled, pilot intervention using a lowfat, vegetarian diet.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10446033/

Vegetarian diet is helpful in managing T2 diabetes.

Pan, et. al, 2011. Red meat consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21831992/

Red meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of diabetes.

Pan, et. al, 2013. Changes in red meat consumption and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: three cohorts of US men and women.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23779232/

Red meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of diabetes.

Qiu, et. al, 2011. Risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in relation to maternal egg and cholesterol intake.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21324948/

Egg consumption was associated with higher risks of gestational diabetes.

+ the risk of congenital malformations from gestational diabetes = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22052679/ + the risk of T2 diabetes post gestational diabetes is higher = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19465232/

Rajpathak, et. al, 2006. Iron intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women: a prospective cohort study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16732023/

Higher heme iron (from meat) intake is associated with a higher risk of T2 diabetes.

Rizzo, 2011. Vegetarian dietary patterns are associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome: the adventist health study 2.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21411506/

Vegetarians have a reduced risk of diabetes.

Romeu, et. al, 2013. Diet, iron biomarkers and oxidative stress in a representative sample of Mediterranean population.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23866833/

Heme iron in meat is associated with more oxidative stress which is a precursor for diabetes.

Savva, et. al, 2014. Is red meat required for the prevention of iron deficiency among children and adolescents?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25088337/?i=57&from=vegan%20diet

CVD, cancer, diabetes & associations with red meat.

Song, et. al, 2004. A prospective study of red meat consumption and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly women: the women’s health study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15333470/

Red meat associated with increased diabetes risk in women.

Snowdon, 1988. Animal product consumption and mortality because of all causes combined, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer in Seventh-day Adventists.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/3046303/

Meat consumption positively associated with diabetes, CHD, cancer & stroke.

Tonstad, et. al, 2009. Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19351712/

Vegans provided the greatest protection against diabetes & obesity.

Tonstad, et. al, 2013. Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/21983060/

Diabetes incidence in vegans, lacto ovo vegetarians. Associated with a substantial & independent reduction in diabetes.

van Dam, et. al, 2002. Dietary fat and meat intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in men.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11874924/

Total & saturated fat associated with increased diabetes. Meat consumption. associated with increased diabetes risk.

Vang, et. al, 2008. Meats, processed meats, obesity, weight gain and occurrence of diabetes among adults: findings from Adventist Health Studies.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18349528/

Meat appears to be *correlated* to diabetes versus diabetes incidence in vegetarians.

Vergnaud, et. al, 2010. Meat consumption and prospective weight change in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study

http://m.ajcn.nutrition.org/content/92/2/398.long

Meat (red meat, poultry & processed meats) were positively associated with an increase in weight & correlated diabetes.

Virtanen, et. al, 2000. Cow’s milk consumption, HLA-DQB1 genotype, and type 1 diabetes: a nested case-control study of siblings of children with diabetes. Childhood diabetes in Finland study group.

http://m.diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/49/6/912.short

Cow’s milk consumption can lead to diabetes in children.

Zhang, et. al, 2006. A prospective study of dietary patterns, meat intake and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16957814/

An increase in red & processed meats is associated with an increase in gestational diabetes.

Escherichia albertii

Hinenoya, et. al, 2014. Molecular characterization of cytolethal distending toxin gene-positive Escherichia coli from healthy cattle and swine in Nara, Japan.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24742173/?i=9&from=Escherichia%20albertii

Healthy swine & cattle can be a reservoir for CTEC & cause infection in humans.

Maeda, et. al, 2015. Detection of Escherichia albertii from chicken meat and giblets.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25754935/?i=39&from=chicken%20meat

Chicken as a possible vehicle for Escherichia albertii.

Perez, et. al, 2013. Antibiotic resistance and growth of the emergent pathogen Escherichia albertii on raw ground beef stored under refrigeration, abuse, and physiological temperature.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23317867/?i=16&from=